Welcome to the blog of the European Consortium for Political Research Standing Group on Political Violence. In this blog you will find timely articles and commentary, research news, job opportunities and other information relevant to scholars with an interest in understanding political violence.
Call for papers for the Third Annual Conference of the International Association For Peace And Conflict Studies And the ECPR Standing Group On Critical Peace And Conflict Studies. The theme for the conference is ‘Shaping Local Infrastructures and State Formation’.
11-12 Sept at the Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute (HCRI), University of Manchester.
What shapes peace? We are familiar with the top-down interventions organised around military, statebuilding and governance interventions, but what about the local infrastructures of peace that involve local agency? How does this agency create new institutions or interacts with existing ones? What are the sources of inspiration for these local infrastructures, and how do they relate to local, national, regional and international norms and structures of peacebuilding? These issues of hybridity, friction, socialisation and norm-formation raise important questions about the location of power, the temporal nature of international interventions, and the interaction of the top-down and bottom up. In particular, it raises questions about the nature of the state and the role of the international community in a globalised, and globally governed, world.
The ‘local turn’ has raised issues of power, structure, and agency. In particular it has placed the tension between international and local forms of peace mobilisation, and the nature and role of the state into the spotlight, as forms of agency and the state are often entwined in any peace process and settlement. The international community tends to follow liberal peace norms; global governance introduces neoliberal rationalities, and the state is perceived, top- down, as the repository for these contradictory processes. State formation arguments, however, tend to see the state as being formed by local and regional power and violence. All of these perspectives on the political and structural processes that institutionalised peace appear to be oppositional, and offer little space for local agents of peace to engage in peace-making and peace or state formation.
And yet, evidence is growing that peace forms, if only in isolated pockets, on the ground through various forms of contestation, just as the state forms through violence or other clashes of power. Local infrastructures for peace have been seen as a way of building a new social contract, connecting the state to its people, as well as being guided by international liberal and neoliberal preferences. For scholars of peace and conflict studies, such processes are a fundamental challenge. Thus, the conference welcomes single paper and panel proposals on issues relating to Local Infrastructures of Peace and Peace/State Formation, including but not limited to:
- Local initiatives of peacebuilding – Theoretical and conceptual investigations of the factors underlying peacebuilding – The institutional characteristics of local peace initiatives – The relationship between local initiatives and the nature of the state – The relationship between the state and the international – Local to global peace networks
Deadline for paper and panel proposals: 31 May 2014. Proposals should be 250 words maximum and sent to: firstname.lastname@example.org Registration costs are £20 for paid academics and £10 for students and the unwaged. The registration fee is waived for current members of the IAPCS.
The trouble with violence – lessons from psychology, sociology and anthropology, Copenhagen Graduate School of Social Sciences, 14-15 May 2014
This course aims to further our understanding of violence. Violence is a notoriously slippery concept that defies simple definition and problematizes taken for granted social-scientific perspectives. The course seeks to grasp some of this complexity through an inter-disciplinary approach to the study of violence.
Spanning psychological, sociological and anthropological views on the subject, we will illuminate the various aspects of social life where violence figures as potentiality or actuality, and focus on the phenomenon as it expresses itself on different levels. Moving from the situational to the structural and from the physical to the social, the course investigates the various ways in which violence operates in the world, as a social modality and a political technology, thereby clarifying and nuancing our empirical and theoretical knowledge of the phenomenon.
The course format is a mixture of lectures and discussions of individual research projects. The course will include two lectures by the leading sociological authority on violence, Professor Randall Collins of the University of Pennsylvania. Furthermore, each participant is supposed to present a research paper (5-10 pages) focussed on the way violence features as an issue within their work. The research papers will be discussed by senior researchers and participating Ph.D. students, who will be assigned the task of commentating on a paper.
Date: May 14-15
Location: TBA CSS
Participation in class: Research paper and commenting on papers.
Abstract: Abstracts (max 250 words) – deadline March 27.
Research papers: Research papers (5-10 pages) – deadline April 30.
Maximum participants: 12 persons.
Registration by mail to email@example.com
Course leaders Henrik Vigh and Poul Poder decide on the basis of the quality and the relevance of the abstract who can participate if more than 12 person apply. Submitting in a research paper is a requirement for participation.
Course dinner: Optional
Additional literature and resources concerning violence:
Jane Kilby, Introduction to Special Issue: Theorizing Violence
European Journal of Social Theory August 2013 16: 261-272, doi:10.1177/1368431013476579
Sylvia Walby Violence and society: Introduction to an emerging field of sociology
Current Sociology March 2013 61: 95-111, first published on September 25, 2012 doi:10.1177/0011392112456478
Randall Collins, “Micro and Macro Causes of Violence.” International Journal of Conflict and Violence 3: 9-22, 2009.
2006. “Micro-interactional dynamics of violent atrocities.” Irish Journal of Sociology 15: 40-52.
2007. “Techniques of Violent Confrontation: Micro Sociological Cues to Mass Killing.” Contexts 6 (No. 2, Spring) 31-3.
2011. “The Invention and Diffusion of Social Techniques of Violence: How Micro-Sociology Can Explain Historical Trends.” Sociologia: Italian Journal of Sociology. http://www.sociologica.mulino.it/
2011. “Forward Panic and Violent Atrocities.” In Strang, Heather, Suzanne Karstedt, and Ian Loader (eds). Emotions, Crime and Justice. Oxford: Hart Publishing, pp. 23-36
2010. “In Conversation with the American Sociological Association President: Randall Collins on Emotions, Violence, and Interactionist Sociology.” Canadian Review of Sociology 46: 93-101.
Lang, Johannes (2010). “Questioning Dehumanization: Intersubjective Dimensions of Violence in the Nazi Concentration and Death Camps.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 24: 225-246.
Owens, Peter B., Su, Yang, & Snow, David A. (2013). “Social Scientific Inquiry Into Genocide and Mass Killing: From Unitary Outcome to Complex Processes.” Annual Review of Sociology, 39: 69-84.
Semelin, Jacques (2007). “The Vertigo of Impunity.” In Semelin, Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, pp. 238-278.
W. Schinkel Aspects of Violence – A Critical Theory, Palgrave Macmillan
2005 La violence. Paris: Hachette.
2009 Violence: A New Approach. London: Sage.
2012 Evil. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Dynamics of Political Violence
A Process-Oriented Perspective on Radicalization and the Escalation of Political Conflict
Edited by Lorenzo Bosi, Chares Demetriou and Stefan Malthaner
‘Dynamics of Political Violence is one of the most stimulating volumes on this topic to appear in recent
years. It is theoretically sophisticated, drawing on cutting-edge ideas from the fields of social movements and “contentious politics”. It is also wide-ranging in its themes and case studies. This is essential reading for anyone interested in political violence and terrorism.’
Jeff Goodwin, New York University, USA
Dynamics of Political Violence examines how violence emerges and develops from episodes of contentious politics. By considering a wide range of empirical cases, such as anarchist movements, ethno-nationalist and left-wing militancy in Europe, contemporary Islamist violence, and insurgencies in South Africa and Latin America, this volume of research identifies the forces that shape radicalization and violent escalation and contributes to the process- and-mechanism-based models of contentious politics that have been developing over the past decade in both sociology and political science.
Contents: A contentious politics approach to the explanation of radicalization, Lorenzo Bosi, Chares Demetriou and Stefan Malthaner. Part I Dynamics of Interaction between Oppositional Movements/ Groups and the State: The mechanisms of emotion in violent protest, Hank Johnston; A typology of backfire mechanisms, Lasse Lindekilde; Processes of radicalization and de-radicalization in Western European prisons (1965–1986), Christian G. De Vito.
Part II Competition and Conflict: Dynamics of Intra-Movement Interaction: Competitive escalation during protest cycles: comparing left-wing and religious conflicts, Donatella della Porta; Intra-movement competition and political outbidding as mechanisms of radicalization in Northern Ireland, 1968–1969, Gianluca De Fazio; The limits of radicalization: escalation and restraint in the South African liberation movement, Devashree Gupta. Part III Dynamics of Meaning Formation: Frames and Beyond: Contentious interactions, dynamics of interpretations, and radicalization: the Islamization of Palestinian nationalism, Eitan Y. Alimi and Hank Johnston; Radical or righteous? Using gender to shape public perceptions of political violence, Jocelyn Viterna; From national event to transnational injustice symbol: the three phases of the Muhammad cartoon controversy, Thomas Olesen. Part IV Dynamics of (Transnational) Diffusion: Radicalization from outside: the role of the anarchist diaspora in coordinating armed actions in Franco’s Spain, Eduardo Romanos; Protest diffusion and rising political violence in the Turkish ’68 movement: the Arab–Israeli war, ‘Paris May’ and the hot summer of 1968, Emin Alper; The evolution of the al-Qaeda-type terrorism: networks and beyond, Ekaterina Stepanova; Conclusion, Martha Crenshaw; Index.
Call for Panel and/or Paper proposals on Forms of Political Violence
8th ECPR General Conference, University of Glasgow
3-6 September 2014
The Standing Group on Political Violence (Covenors Dr. Lorenzo Bosi and Dr. Niall Ó Dochartaigh) of the European Consortium for Political Research-ECPR invites proposals for papers to be included in the program of the 8th ECPR General Conference, to be hosted on 3 – 6 September 2014 at the University of Glasgow, UK.
Title of Section
Forms of political violence
Dr. Lorenzo Bosi (European University Institute)
Dr. Stefan Malthaner (European University Institute)
Have forms of political violence changed in contemporary socio-political conflicts? How are different forms of political violence legitimized? Do forms of political violence change and/or coexist during the same episode? Do we need different analytical approaches to study different forms of political violence? Are periods of economic crises conducive to particular forms of political violence? Why are some groups more likely to adopt particular forms of political violence? Do forms of political violence change across geographical areas, types of conflict or historical periods?
These questions, which form the core puzzle of this section, are in our view fundamental for furthering the debate on political violence, which so far has largely been segmented into specific fields which focus on particular forms of political violence.
Political violence broadly defined, including guerrilla warfare, insurgency, terrorism, rebellion, revolution, rioting and civil war, can be distinguished in several ways: by the nature of the objectives; by the targets of attacks; by the organizational structure of groups and by the repertoire of actions. We will pay particular attention to tactical repertoires, how these are selected, how they depend on the repertoires’ historical evolution and on the socio-poilitical context, their consequences, across different times and settings. This section, then, will develop comparisons across different forms of political violence, underlining similarities and identifying differences. For these reasons we welcome papers that address three main issues: (1) conceptual and theoretical thinking about forms of political violence, including refining existing definitions and typologies; (2) methodological reflections about how to deal with the subject matter and how to avoid the obstacles that have hindered previous research, from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective; (3) empirical analyses of different forms of political violence, in particular comparative studies encompassing different types of conflicts and/or countries. We welcome submissions that deal with actor groups such as social and protest movements, terrorist groups, insurgencies and other non-state armed formations.
If you are interested in proposing a paper on one of the topics listed below, please contact the corresponding panel organizer by January 24th, 2014. Alternatively, you are also welcome to propose a standalone paper, or a full panel on another topic. Anyone wishing to propose a standalone paper will need to propose it to a specific Section. If accepted, the Section chair will allocate it to the appropriate Panel. As for Panel proposals, they must include a minimum of four papers and each paper must include the paper title, an abstract and author(s) details.
The procedure for submission is outlined below. Although the call for full panels and individual papers will remain open until 15 February 2014 on the ECPR website (http://www.ecpr.eu/Events/EventDetails.aspx?EventID=14) proposals to specific panels and papers should be emailed by January 24th in order to allow time to coordinate the organizers’ efforts.
Please feel free to contact the Section chair Lorenzo Bosi (firstname.lastname@example.org) for further information.
From the ECPR website:
Proposers of Panels or papers need not belong to an ECPR member institution, but they must create a free MyECPR account.
As Europe’s biggest political science conference, the ECPR’s General Conference gathers scholars from across the world to discuss key areas of this discipline. The conference follows a traditional format with the Academic Programme consisting of lectures, Roundtables and themed Sections and Panels on topical subjects. Each Panel will include 4 – 5 Papers to be presented and discussed. The Programme will be very broad with Sections covering all the main areas of political science, political theory, international relations and European studies. You can present and discuss your work or simply observe and become involved in other elements of the programme.
Call for Full Panels and individual Papers
The call for Panels and individual Papers is now open. This stage of the process is open to all participants, but please note that all participants must have a MyECPR account. Individuals can propose a Panel including 4 – 5 Papers or propose individual Papers to a particular Section. Further information explaining the stages in detail can be found in the Guidelines page on www.ecpr.eu
When proposing a Panel/Paper please note that:
* Panel proposals must include a minimum of four Papers and each Paper must include the Paper title, an abstract and author(s) details.
* A standalone Paper can be proposed to a specific Section. If accepted, the Section chair will then allocate it to the appropriate Panel.
* Please note that there will not be a subsequent separate call for Papers.
If you have any further queries about the General Conference, please email Jenna Barnard at email@example.com.
General Conference funding opportunities
A funding opportunity of €250 is available towards the conference for individuals affiliated with ECPR full member institutions (subject to meeting the required criteria). The funding application process will open next year and details will be available on the website in due course. For further queries, please email Anna Foley at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Transnational perspectives on the New Left (wave) violence
Dr. Leena Malkki, Network for European Studies, University of Helsinki, email@example.com
Prof. Alberto Martìn Alvarez. Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José Marìa Luis Mora, Mexico, firstname.lastname@example.org
There is growing consensus within the academic community about the
importance of analyzing the transnational dynamics of political
violence. In this sense, the study of the revolutionary wave of the
New Left (from the Sixties to the Eighties of the twentieth century)
can provide useful clues to understand these transnational dynamics.
Based on this premise, we seek papers that explore the links between
revolutionary organizations within the New Left wave. We are
particularly interested on in studying the processes of diffusion of
ideas and repertoires of action within and between continents. Also,
we look for papers with an emphasis on relationships of support and
solidarity between organizations as well as in the role of allied
governments who provided training, logistics or financing to the
revolutionary groups of this period. Finally, we are also interested
in comparative works exploring processes of radicalization, radical
milieus and internal dynamics of armed organizations within this wave.
Trajectories of political violence
Dr. Stefan Malthaner (European University Institute): email@example.com
Processes of political violence are highly dynamic, constantly changing phenomena that entail shifts in the form, scale, and spaces of violence as well as the continuous transformation of actors. One of the problems with concepts such as “terrorism” (but also “guerrilla warfare”, for example) is that they tend to obscure the heterogeneity and the constantly evolving character of episodes of political violence, as well as the fact that different forms of political violence frequently do co-exist or evolve one out of the other.
By inviting papers addressing the question of trajectories of political violence, this panel seeks to draw attention to these patterns of transformation – the transformation of forms of violence and the transformation of militant groups – over the course of episodes of political violence. Topics of particular interest to the panel include: How does violent protest develop into clandestine violence and large-scale insurgencies? And what is the relationship between different forms of political violence that coexist during certain episodes? How are armed groups re-shaped, for example by violent escalation, harsh repression, or drug economies? And when and how do shifts between different social spaces (i.e. from urban centers to the rural or suburban periphery) occur and how do they re-shape violent conflicts?
Political Violence and Legitimacy: Concepts and Methodologies
Chares Demetriou (Queen’s University Belfast): firstname.lastname@example.org
Political violence is an umbrella term, covering phenomena variously thought of as rebellions, insurgencies, terrorism, civil war, and so on. Legitimacy is likewise a broad term, connoting variously acceptance, acquiescence, endorsement, approval, and so on. This panel seeks to explore the issue of the legitimacy of political violence from a conceptual and methodological perspective. It therefore seeks to explore (1) how to conceptualize political violence and legitimacy in general terms and (2) how to research the legitimacy of political violence.
The first aim takes for granted that a unified set of connotations fits the term political violence, just as legitimacy is considered a term with its own coherent connotations. What is, therefore, the common denominator among the concepts rebellion, insurgency, civil war, etc? Is something that relates to the targets of violence, the aims of violence, the repertoires of violence, or the organization and mobilization behind violence? And what is the genus to legitimacy? Is it collective psychology, social structure, some form of process, or something else?
The second aim builds on the first aim, moving from connotation to denotation. It therefore considers the phenomena denoted when we think of the legitimacy of political violence, as well as the ways we can design research on them. Is studying these phenomena a matter of aggregating traces of micro-behavior, finding the signifiers of structure, locating emergent modalities, or something else?
We invite paper submissions from reflective researchers of political violence. Both abstract papers and papers featuring extensive empirical illustrations are welcome.
Political Violence in times of economic crisis
Lorenzo Bosi, European University Institute, email@example.com
Lorenzo Zamponi, European University Institute, firstname.lastname@example.org
The goal of this panel is to advance the understanding of political violence in times of economic crisis. In order to do this we are concerned with addressing the following interrelated research questions: How do violent repertoires of contention relate to the context of economic crisis? Does economic hardship provide incentives to the use of violent tactics? Which forms of political violence are most widely used in this context? Why, and with which outcomes? How does the context of economic crisis impact on the level of socially tolerated violence and on the individuals’ availability to certain tactics? Which kind of justification of political violence is pursued in times of economic crisis? Which political groups are more likely to turn to violence in this context? How do security forces react to political violence in time of crisis? We welcome submissions coming from different disciplinary fields, in the attempt to bridge the scholarship on political violence with the empirical analysis of the social outcomes of the economic crisis. Each abstract will be evaluated for: quality and clarity of the research question; methodological precision in the comparative approach; theoretically original contribution and discussion of available knowledge; relevance and pertinence to the workshop’s themes.
Title of Panel
Transforming forms of political violence during disengagement processes
Niall Ó Dochartaigh (National University of Ireland Galway): email@example.com
Katy Hayward (Queen’s University Belfast):
The panel explores processes of disengagement from political violence. It examines changing forms of violence, the political and social dynamics of ‘exit’ from violence and the relationship between disengagement by armed groups and the wider socio-political context. We welcome papers that deal with all aspects of disengagement from political violence but particularly those that focus on changes in forms of violence. As groups prepare to end militant campaigns they often intensify and shift the focus of their violence. As campaigns are halted some forms of violence come to an end but others continue and in some cases new forms of violence come to the fore. These changes in forms of violence are in turn embedded in wider relationships and are shaped by both-intra-party and inter-party power relations. One core assumption of the panel organisers is that insights can be gained from considering the elements of continuity (in rationale, objectives, legitimation) in a group’s disengagement from violence, rather than focusing exclusively on what has been transformed.
Among the issues that papers might address are:
How do different forms, repertoires and tactical uses of violence shape processes of disengagement from violence and subsequent long-term processes of stabilization and integration?
What is the impact of transition and disengagement for the actor groups concerned, including the challenge of leadership and managing the risk of fragmentation.
What effect does disengagement from violence and the persistence of certain forms of violence have on militant organisations and their political prospects in a changed socio-political context?
How do changes in the wider context facilitate and promote disengagement from violence, be they minimal changes such as the lifting of censorship of a party or major changes like the rewriting of a constitution or the redrawing of a state border?
XVII AHILA International Congress
“Entre Espacios: La historia latinoamericana en el contexto global” Colegio Internacional de Graduados “Entre Espacios“
Freie Universität Berlin
9-13 September 2014
The revolutionary wave of the “New Left” in Latin America and Europe
Eduardo Rey Tristán, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, España. firstname.lastname@example.org Alberto Martín Álvarez, Instituto Mora, México. email@example.com
The Symposium will be devoted to theoretical reflection and empirical debate about one of the most promising trends in recent historical research on political violence: the study of waves of revolutionary violence proposed by David C. Rapoport. In this case, the objective of the symposium will be the third wave, called by this author the “new left”(sixties to eighties), in Latin America and Europe.
This is a timely proposal in terms of this Congress as it is focused on the links between the two regions. And it is so, above all, because there are several research groups and projects in various countries, that are recently showing the importance and interest of the transnational dimension of political violence, especially in the case and the regions that concern us. This subject, of recent development and with a increasing repercussion in the near future, will be the focus of a symposium that aims to be a meeting point of several lines of research that develop on a relative isolation in both continents.
Also, this initiative is a continuation to the tasks that in this line of research and coordination of an international network, have initiated the chairs of this Symposium through the recent organization of the International Workshop “The Revolutionary Wave of the New Left in Latin America and Europe (1960-1990) “(Santiago de Compostela, 18 to 19 November 2013). This Symposium under the AHILA 2014 Congress is programmed as a second meeting between researchers already linked to the nascent network as well as a place for building new relationships with other researchers who may be interested in this project in the near future.
Therefore, we propose to establish an academic dialogue and the creation of stronger and firmer links between researchers and groups interested in the origins, development and decline of the wave of violence of the revolutionary “new left” in Latin America and Europe . We will favor specially the adoption of transnational perspectives that explore the linkages – ideological, material and personal- between organizations and groups, and between the two continents. We are interested on exploring issues such as the spread of ideas and repertoires of action, collaboration, support, and solidarity between organizations in Latin American and Europe, as well as the comparative perspectives that will allow us to find possible common patterns of emergence, development and disappearance of armed groups within the wave of “New Left”.
Submission of paper proposals and guidelines for participants:
Congress participants will propose their papers directly to the chairs of the symposium They will send an email to the chairs with the following information:
1. Name, title of the presentation, abstract (between 1000 and 2000 characters) and keywords.
2. Institutional affiliation and brief CV (no more than 8 lines, in order to spread the information among participants of the Symposium).
DEADLINE for submission of proposals for papers to the chairs of the symposium is 31 JANUARY 2014.
All other guidelines for participants can be found here: http://www.lai.fu- berlin.de/es/ahila2014/conferencia/segunda_carta_circular/index.html
Information about registration and fees:
Information about AHILA 2014 program:
Fourth Global International Studies Conference in Frankfurt/Germany, 6–9 August 2014
Panel organized by Janusz Biene, Daniel Kaiser & Holger Marcks*. Chair: Prof. Dr. Christopher Daase
Call for Papers: Transnational Dimensions of Violent Dissidence
Violent dissidence, i.e. radical and militant resistance against a political order, is both a historic and contemporary phenomenon. Transnational embeddedness has always been an important characteristic of violent dissidence: Dissident groups cooperate with peers (as well as states) across borders, exchange weapons and human resources, learn from each other, and adopt or emulate tactics and strategic frames for their purposes. However, even though this diffusion of material and ideational factors can have a crucial impact on the political and violent strategies pursued by dissident groups, research on social movements, political violence and terrorism has largely ignored such transnational dimensions. As a consequence, there is a lack of theoretically-grounded research on the nature and impact of diffusion and other similar cross-border processes.
To be sure, there are notable exceptions. For instance, in studies on civil war the transnational dynamics of intra-state conflicts have been recently addressed from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives. At the same time, transnational politics have (re)gained considerable attention in both International Relations and Sociology. In light of these contributions, it is crucial to go beyond the traditional “closed polity approaches” not only in studies on civil war, but other forms of violent conflict as well.
This panel aims to investigate the transnational dimensions of violent dissidence. The types of possible historical and contemporary examples are numerous, ranging from historical anarchism over anticolonial armed struggles to contemporary jihadism. Again, analyzing cases in their local or national context is too narrow a perspective. Though investigations into transnational aspects of conflicts often struggle with a limited data, some kind of cooperation, interaction, or material/ideational diffusion across type, time and space can be identified. As a consequence of this influence, groups may gain or lose leverage, power and support, act on the behalf of certain ideologies and adopt specific forms of organization, strategy and tactics.
We welcome empirical and theoretical papers from a broad range of perspectives addressing the following or related questions: How can we describe and conceptualize transnational dimensions of violent dissidence? Which types of transnational relations can be distinguished? What are the conditions of their establishment in the first place? What impact do transnational dimensions have on violence? Who are the targets? Does transnational cooperation lead to a change in tactics, political strategies or organizational structures, and if so, how? How can we study such transnational phenomena? What are the mechanisms underlying these processes (e.g. diffusion, scale shift), how do they interact, and how do they change? How are they related to (contemporary) phenomena like globalization and international migration? What are the causal mechanisms driving processes of (de)radicalization and (de)escalation of violence?
We are looking forward to contributions trying to tackle these and other questions related to the transnational dynamics of violent dissidence. Please submit proposals in the form of an abstract of up to 500 words before November 18th 2013.
Related Categories: “Power in World Politics: National, Global, Transnational”; “Diffusion and Importation of Ideas and Institutions”.
*Research Associates at the Chair for “International Organizations”, Goethe University Frankfurt, researching in the project “Transnational Escalation Mechanisms of Violent Dissidence”. Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org- frankfurt.de, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org.